Error Masking Probability of 1's Complement Checksums
In the transport layer of the
TCP/IP protocol suite, both TCP and UDP use
internet checksum to protect headers and data. Internet checksum uses
1's complement arithmetic to detect errors in the content delivered by
data-link layer. Both research and experience have shown that there are
a wide variety of error sources which can not be detected by this lower
layer. The error detecting performance of 1's complement checksum
how many of these errors will be passed to higher layers, including the
The performance analysis will also influence protocol design and
improvement, for example, header compression. Unfortunately, previous
work on this topic only determined the number of error passing patterns
and the probability for 2 and 3 bit errors, and the method used for
determining the probability is hard to
extend to more bit errors. In this paper, we present a method to
generate the formula
of error passing probability. When too much calculation is needed
to compute an exact result, we achieve a better estimation of the
probability, which is around 3 percent of the upper bound achievable
with previous techniques when 1's
complement checksum is used in TCP/UDP.
See full paper.
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